Next Article in Journal
Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources—Global Stages of Interaction
Next Article in Special Issue
A Hybrid Heuristic Optimization Approach for Leak Detection in Pipe Networks Using Ordinal Optimization Approach and the Symbiotic Organism Search
Previous Article in Journal
Water Quality Considerations on the Rise as the Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems Widens
Previous Article in Special Issue
Transient Wave Scattering and Its Influence on Transient Analysis and Leak Detection in Urban Water Supply Systems: Theoretical Analysis and Numerical Validation
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water 2017, 9(10), 811; doi:10.3390/w9100811

Data-Driven Study of Discolouration Material Mobilisation in Trunk Mains

College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1867 KB, uploaded 13 November 2017]   |  


It has been shown that sufficiently high velocities can cause the mobilisation of discolouration material in water distribution systems. However, how much typical hydraulic conditions affect the mobilisation of discolouration material has yet to be thoroughly investigated. In this paper, results are presented from real turbidity and flow observations collected from three U.K. trunk main networks over a period of two years and 11 months. A methodology is presented that determines whether discolouration material has been mobilised by hydraulic forces and the origin of that material. The methodology found that the majority of turbidity observations over 1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) could be linked to a preceding hydraulic force that exceeded an upstream pipe’s hydraulically preconditioned state. The findings presented in this paper show the potential in proactively managing the hydraulic profile to reduce discolouration risk and improve customer service. View Full-Text
Keywords: water distribution systems; velocity; discolouration; modelling; turbidity; hydraulic events; water quality; mains conditioning water distribution systems; velocity; discolouration; modelling; turbidity; hydraulic events; water quality; mains conditioning

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Meyers, G.; Kapelan, Z.; Keedwell, E. Data-Driven Study of Discolouration Material Mobilisation in Trunk Mains. Water 2017, 9, 811.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top