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Water 2016, 8(9), 363; doi:10.3390/w8090363

Water Footprint Calculation on the Basis of Input–Output Analysis and a Biproportional Algorithm: A Case Study for the Yellow River Basin, China

1,2,* , 1,* and 3
1
College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
School of Resources and Environment, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011, China
3
Shandong Academy of Environmental Science, Jinan 250013, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Ashok K. Chapagain and Pieter R. van Oel
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 23 July 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1412 KB, uploaded 23 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

In the Yellow River basin, China, ecosystems suffer from the overexploitation and utilization of water resources, resulting in various environmental impacts. Consideration must be given to both human and ecosystem water requirements in water resources management. A water footprint (WF) is a tool for estimating industrial, agricultural, commercial and household water requirements and for examining the impact of consumption on water resources. The study attempts to establish an approach to analyse the dynamic processes and driving forces that result in certain WFs. Using input–output tables for provinces and municipalities, we calculate water use coefficients, the total WF and the net external WF of consumption in China’s Yellow River Basin. A biproportional algorithm is employed to revise the input–output tables for analysing the temporal dynamics of the WF. The factor analysis and linear regression were used to analyse the main influencing factors of WF. Results indicate that the coefficient for water use by primary industries is highest and that coefficients for provincial water use differ significantly. Second, household consumption and residuals from capital accumulation constituted approximately half of the total WF of the Yellow River basin in 2002 and also differed significantly among provinces. Third, the ratio of the net external WF to the total WF increased, and the ratio of final consumption to the total WF declined during the period examined. Fourth, output by secondary industries correlated most strongly with the WF, followed by area under irrigation, per capita meat consumption, water consumption per 10,000-yuan increase in added value and population. View Full-Text
Keywords: Yellow River basin; input–output analysis; total water use coefficient; water footprint; biproportional method Yellow River basin; input–output analysis; total water use coefficient; water footprint; biproportional method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yin, J.; Wang, H.; Cai, Y. Water Footprint Calculation on the Basis of Input–Output Analysis and a Biproportional Algorithm: A Case Study for the Yellow River Basin, China. Water 2016, 8, 363.

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