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Water 2016, 8(6), 243; doi:10.3390/w8060243

Large Constructed Wetlands for Phosphorus Control: A Review

Wetland Management Services, 6995 Westbourne Drive, Chelsea, MI 48118, USA
Academic Editor: Hans Brix
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
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Abstract

This paper reviews aspects of the performance of large (>40 ha) constructed treatment wetlands intended for phosphorus control. Thirty-seven such wetlands have been built and have good data records, with a median size of 754 ha. All are successfully removing phosphorus from a variety of waters. Period of record median concentration reductions were 71%, load reductions 0.77 gP·m−2·year−1, and rate coefficients 12.5 m·year−1. Large wetlands have a narrower performance spectrum than the larger group of all sizes. Some systems display startup trends, ranging to several years, likely resulting from antecedent soil and vegetation conditions. There are internal longitudinal gradients in concentration, which vary with lateral position and flow conditions. Accretion in inlet zones may require attention. Concentrations are reduced to plateau values, in the range of about 10–50 mgP·m−3. Vegetation type has an effect upon performance measures, and its presence facilitates performance. Trends in the performance measures over the history of individual systems display only small changes, with both increases and decreases occurring. Such trends remove little of the variance in behavior. Seasonality is typically weak for steady flow systems, and most variability appears to be stochastic. Stormwater systems display differences between wet and dry season behavior, which appear to be flow-driven. Several models of system performance have been developed, both steady and dynamic. View Full-Text
Keywords: treatment wetlands; free water surface wetlands; phosphorus; performance; variability; models treatment wetlands; free water surface wetlands; phosphorus; performance; variability; models
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kadlec, R.H. Large Constructed Wetlands for Phosphorus Control: A Review. Water 2016, 8, 243.

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