Next Article in Journal
Performance Evaluation of a Floating Treatment Wetland in an Urban Catchment
Next Article in Special Issue
Performance of Four Full-Scale Artificially Aerated Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Domestic Wastewater Treatment
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of Risk Due to Chemicals Transferred in a Watershed: A Case of an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery Site
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Water 2016, 8(6), 243;

Large Constructed Wetlands for Phosphorus Control: A Review

Wetland Management Services, 6995 Westbourne Drive, Chelsea, MI 48118, USA
Academic Editor: Hans Brix
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3727 KB, uploaded 23 June 2017]   |  


This paper reviews aspects of the performance of large (>40 ha) constructed treatment wetlands intended for phosphorus control. Thirty-seven such wetlands have been built and have good data records, with a median size of 754 ha. All are successfully removing phosphorus from a variety of waters. Period of record median concentration reductions were 71%, load reductions 0.77 gP·m−2·year−1, and rate coefficients 12.5 m·year−1. Large wetlands have a narrower performance spectrum than the larger group of all sizes. Some systems display startup trends, ranging to several years, likely resulting from antecedent soil and vegetation conditions. There are internal longitudinal gradients in concentration, which vary with lateral position and flow conditions. Accretion in inlet zones may require attention. Concentrations are reduced to plateau values, in the range of about 10–50 mgP·m−3. Vegetation type has an effect upon performance measures, and its presence facilitates performance. Trends in the performance measures over the history of individual systems display only small changes, with both increases and decreases occurring. Such trends remove little of the variance in behavior. Seasonality is typically weak for steady flow systems, and most variability appears to be stochastic. Stormwater systems display differences between wet and dry season behavior, which appear to be flow-driven. Several models of system performance have been developed, both steady and dynamic. View Full-Text
Keywords: treatment wetlands; free water surface wetlands; phosphorus; performance; variability; models treatment wetlands; free water surface wetlands; phosphorus; performance; variability; models

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kadlec, R.H. Large Constructed Wetlands for Phosphorus Control: A Review. Water 2016, 8, 243.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top