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Water 2016, 8(6), 227; doi:10.3390/w8060227

Variations on Soil Salinity and Sodicity and Its Driving Factors Analysis under Microtopography in Different Hydrological Conditions

1
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4888 Shengbei Street, Changchun 130102, China
2
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
3
Dynamic Solutions, LLC, Knoxville, TN 37919, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hongyan Li
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 15 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Abstract

Over three million hectares of salt-affected soils characterized with high salinity and sodicity caused serious land degradation in Songnen Plain, northeast China. Soil salinity–sodicity heterogeneous distribution under microtopography is usually influenced by several environmental factors. The side direction movement of soil water driven by water from depression is the key factor that aggravates the soil salinization under microtopography in dry condition. In this study, the differences in surface soil salinity–sodicity (0–10 cm) between dry year and wet year were compared, and the relationship between soil salinity–sodicity and environment factors such as ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moisture at four soil layers (0–10, 10–30, 30–60, and 60–100 cm) were analyzed using redundancy analysis (RDA) and simple correlation analysis (Pearson analysis) for two different hydrological years. Analyzed soil salinity–sodicity parameters include soluble ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, CO32−, HCO3, Cl and SO42−), salt content (SC), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and pH. Results showed that values of SAR, Cl, and SO42− were significantly higher in dry year than in wet year, while Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and HCO3 showed the opposite results. Values of Na+, CO32−, and EC were significantly higher at higher ground elevation gradient (20–40 cm) in dry year than wet year. Redundancy analysis indicated that spatial distributions and variations of salinity and sodicity in surface soil layer were related with environmental factors of ponding depth, ponding time and ground elevation in wet year, and they were related with ground elevation, ponding depth, ponding time, and soil moisture at 30–60 and 60–100 cm soil layer in dry year. Ponding depth and ground elevation rank first and second as the influential factors of the spatial distribution and variation of soil salinity–sodicity in wet year. However in dry year, primary and secondary influential factors are ground elevation and soil moisture at 60–100 cm soil layer. View Full-Text
Keywords: saline-sodic soil; spatial distribution; environment factor; redundancy analysis; western Songnen Plain saline-sodic soil; spatial distribution; environment factor; redundancy analysis; western Songnen Plain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, F.; An, F.; Ma, H.; Wang, Z.; Zhou, X.; Liu, Z. Variations on Soil Salinity and Sodicity and Its Driving Factors Analysis under Microtopography in Different Hydrological Conditions. Water 2016, 8, 227.

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