Next Article in Journal
Variations on Soil Salinity and Sodicity and Its Driving Factors Analysis under Microtopography in Different Hydrological Conditions
Next Article in Special Issue
Water Footprint of Milk Produced and Processed in South Africa: Implications for Policy-Makers and Stakeholders along the Dairy Value Chain
Previous Article in Journal
Fully Stochastic Distributed Methodology for Multivariate Flood Frequency Analysis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2016, 8(6), 226; doi:10.3390/w8060226

European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050

1
Water Footprint Network, International Water House, Bezuidenhoutseweg 2, 2594 AV The Hague, The Netherlands
2
Twente Water Centre, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Loukas
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5091 KB, uploaded 27 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

This study develops water footprint scenarios for Europe for 2050, at the country level, based on projections regarding population and economic growth, production and trade patterns, consumption patterns (diets and bioenergy use) and technological development. The objective is to estimate possible future changes in the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of production and consumption, to analyze the main drivers of projected changes and to assess Europe’s future dependence on water resources elsewhere in the world. We develop four scenarios, considering globalization versus regional self-sufficiency, and development driven by economic objectives versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows that the most critical driver of change affecting Europe’s future WF is the consumption pattern. The WFs of both production and consumption in Western Europe increase under scenarios with high meat consumption and decrease with low-meat scenarios. Besides, additional water demands from increasing biofuel needs will put further pressure on European water resources. The European countries with a large ratio of external to total WF of consumption in 2000 decrease their dependencies on foreign water resources in 2050. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; water consumption; water pollution; virtual water trade; water dependency; diet; biofuel; scenarios; Europe water footprint; water consumption; water pollution; virtual water trade; water dependency; diet; biofuel; scenarios; Europe
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ercin, A.E.; Hoekstra, A.Y. European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050. Water 2016, 8, 226.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top