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Water 2016, 8(5), 173; doi:10.3390/w8050173

Constructed Wetlands for Agricultural Wastewater Treatment in Northeastern North America: A Review

1
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Science and Technology Branch, Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A OC5, Canada
3
Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6028, USA
4
School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
5
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alan Howard
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands Systems and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [237 KB, uploaded 27 April 2016]

Abstract

Constructed wetlands (CW) are a treatment option for agricultural wastewater. Their ability to adequately function in cold climates continues to be evaluated as they are biologically active systems that depend on microbial and plant activity. In order to assess their performance and to highlight regional specific design considerations, a review of CWs in Eastern Canada and the Northeastern USA was conducted. Here, we synthesize performance data from 21 studies, in which 25 full-scale wetlands were assessed. Where possible, data were separated seasonally to evaluate the climatic effects on treatment performance. The wastewater parameters considered were five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), E. coli, fecal coliforms, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4+-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and total phosphorus (TP). Average concentration reductions were: BOD5 81%, TSS 83%, TKN 75%, NH4+-N 76%, NO3-N 42%, and TP 64%. Average log reductions for E. coli and fecal coliforms were 1.63 and 1.93, respectively. Average first order areal rate constants (ka, m·y−1) were: BOD5 6.0 m·y−1, TSS 7.7 m·y−1, E. coli 7.0 m·y−1, fecal coliforms 9.7 m·y−1, TKN 3.1 m·y−1, NH4+-N 3.3 m·y−1, NO3-N 2.5 m·y−1, and TP 2.9 m·y−1. In general, CWs effectively treated a variety of agricultural wastewaters, regardless of season. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural wastewater; cold climate; constructed wetlands; water treatment agricultural wastewater; cold climate; constructed wetlands; water treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rozema, E.R.; VanderZaag, A.C.; Wood, J.D.; Drizo, A.; Zheng, Y.; Madani, A.; Gordon, R.J. Constructed Wetlands for Agricultural Wastewater Treatment in Northeastern North America: A Review. Water 2016, 8, 173.

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