Next Article in Journal
Modeling of Coupled Water and Heat Transfer in Freezing and Thawing Soils, Inner Mongolia
Next Article in Special Issue
Rainfall Characteristics and Regionalization in Peninsular Malaysia Based on a High Resolution Gridded Data Set
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Dicentrarchus labrax Meats and the Vegetable Quality of Beta vulgaris var. cicla Farmed in Freshwater and Saltwater Aquaponic Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Daily Precipitation Changes over Large River Basins in China, 1960–2013
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2016, 8(10), 422; doi:10.3390/w8100422

Spatial Patterns and Influence Factors of Conversion Coefficients between Two Typical Pan Evaporimeters in China

1
Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tommaso Moramarco and Roberto Ranzi
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7861 KB, uploaded 27 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Pan measurement is a reliable and efficient method for indicating the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. There are several types of pan evaporimeters worldwide, and the estimation of the conversion coefficients (Kp) between them is necessary in hydrologic research. In China, E601B pans were installed at all meteorological stations beginning in 1998. They replaced the 20 cm pans (φ20). To fully use the records from the two pans and obtain long-term pan evaporation, the spatial patterns of Kp between φ20 and E601B and the factors that influence Kp are investigated based on records from 573 national meteorological stations from 1998 to 2001. In this study, The results show that higher Kp values are found in southwestern regions and lower values are found in northeastern regions during the warm seasons (from May to September), while Kp values are lower during warm seasons than during cold seasons (from October to April the following year). In addition, net radiation was found to be the dominant climate factor that affects variations in Kp, followed by relative humidity and the vapor pressure deficit. This study can improve the benefit of not only the selection of appropriate evaporimeters by meteorological departments, but also of the study of temporal variability and trends in the evaporative demand. View Full-Text
Keywords: conversion coefficients; pan evaporation; eight climate regions in China; 20 cm diameter pan; E601B (E601); evaporative demand conversion coefficients; pan evaporation; eight climate regions in China; 20 cm diameter pan; E601B (E601); evaporative demand
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Liang, K. Spatial Patterns and Influence Factors of Conversion Coefficients between Two Typical Pan Evaporimeters in China. Water 2016, 8, 422.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top