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Water 2015, 7(9), 5031-5060; doi:10.3390/w7095031

Evolution of Water Lifting Devices (Pumps) over the Centuries Worldwide

1
Faculty of Engineering, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124, Greece
2
School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechneiou 5, Zographou GR-15780, Greece
3
Faculty of Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124, Greece
4
Department of Water Resources History, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR), Beijing 100048, China
5
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
6
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Chile, Santiago 8370448, Chile
7
Institute of Iraklion, National Foundation for Agricultural Research (NAGREF), Iraklion GR-71307, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3581 KB, uploaded 17 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

The evolution of the major achievements in water lifting devices with emphasis on the major technologies over the centuries is presented and discussed. Valuable insights into ancient water lifting technologies with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability, and sustainability are provided. A comparison of the relevant technological developments in several early civilizations is carried out. These technologies are the underpinning of modern achievements in water engineering. They represent the best paradigm of probing the past and facing the future. A timeline of the historical development of water pumps worldwide through the last 5500 years of the history of mankind is presented. A chronological order is followed with emphasis on the major civilizations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hellenistic Alexandria; Ancient Egyptians; Archimedes screw; Chinese Dynasties; Classical and Hellenistic periods; Indians; Bronze Age; Roman times; Persian Empire; piston-type pump; pre-Columbian America; shaduf Hellenistic Alexandria; Ancient Egyptians; Archimedes screw; Chinese Dynasties; Classical and Hellenistic periods; Indians; Bronze Age; Roman times; Persian Empire; piston-type pump; pre-Columbian America; shaduf
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yannopoulos, S.I.; Lyberatos, G.; Theodossiou, N.; Li, W.; Valipour, M.; Tamburrino, A.; Angelakis, A.N. Evolution of Water Lifting Devices (Pumps) over the Centuries Worldwide. Water 2015, 7, 5031-5060.

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