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Water 2015, 7(5), 2037-2059; doi:10.3390/w7052037

Upflow Evapotranspiration System for the Treatment of On-Site Wastewater Effluent

Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael O’Driscoll
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
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Abstract

Full-scale willow evapotranspiration systems fed from the base with septic tank or secondary treated domestic effluent from single houses have been constructed and instrumented in Ireland in order to investigate whether the technology could provide a solution to the problem of on-site effluent disposal in areas with low permeability subsoils. Continuous monitoring of rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, effluent flows and water level in the sealed systems revealed varying evapotranspiration rates across the different seasons. No system managed to achieve zero discharge in any year remaining at maximum levels for much of the winter months, indicating some loss of water by lateral exfiltration at the surface. Water sampling and analysis however, showed that the quality of any surface overflow from the systems was similar to rainfall runoff. The performance results have then been used to formulate design guidelines for such systems in Ireland’s temperate maritime climate. The effect of varying different combinations of design parameters (plan area, soil depth, etc.) has been evaluated with respect to the simulated number of overflow days over a five-year period using a water balance model. Design guidelines have then been based upon minimising the amount of runoff, in conjunction with other practical and financial considerations. View Full-Text
Keywords: on-site wastewater; low permeability; evapotranspiration; willow; passive treatment on-site wastewater; low permeability; evapotranspiration; willow; passive treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Curneen, S.; Gill, L. Upflow Evapotranspiration System for the Treatment of On-Site Wastewater Effluent. Water 2015, 7, 2037-2059.

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