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Water 2015, 7(1), 329-347; doi:10.3390/w7010329

Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan 712-749, Korea
2
Aga Research Technology Innovation Centre, Thermax Limited, Pune 411 019, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael O’Driscoll and Charles Humphrey
Received: 25 November 2014 / Revised: 17 December 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
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Abstract

onstructed wetland applications have been limited by a large land requirement and capital investment. This study aimed to improve a shallow pond water hyacinth system by incorporating the advantages of engineered attached microbial growth technique (termed Bio-hedge) for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. A laboratory scale continuous-flow system consists of the mesh type matrix providing an additional biofilm surface area of 54 m2/m3. Following one year of experimentation, the process showed more stability and enhanced performance in removing organic matter and nutrients, compared to traditional water hyacinth (by lowering 33%–67% HRT) and facultative (by lowering 92%–96% HRT) ponds. The wastewater exposed plants revealed a relative growth rate of 1.15% per day, and no anatomical deformities were observed. Plant nutrient level averaged 27 ± 1.7 and 44 ± 2.3 mg N/g dry weight, and 5 ± 1.4 & 9±1.2 mg P/g dry weight in roots and shoots, respectively. Microorganisms immobilized on Bio-hedge media (4.06 × 107 cfu/cm2) and plant roots (3.12 × 104 cfu/cm) were isolated and identified (a total of 23 strains). The capital cost was pre-estimated for 1 m3/d wastewater at 78 US$/m3inflow and 465 US$/kg BOD5 removed. This process is a suitable ecotechnology due to improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings, and increased quality effluent. View Full-Text
Keywords: attached microbial growth; domestic wastewater; on-site treatment; phytoremediation; water hyacinth system attached microbial growth; domestic wastewater; on-site treatment; phytoremediation; water hyacinth system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Valipour, A.; Raman, V.K.; Ahn, Y.-H. Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System. Water 2015, 7, 329-347.

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