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Water 2015, 7(1), 300-328; doi:10.3390/w7010300

Stakeholder Views, Financing and Policy Implications for Reuse of Wastewater for Irrigation: A Case from Hyderabad, India

1
Center for Environmental Management and Decision Support (CEMDS), Vienna 1180, Austria
2
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Hyderabad Office, Patancheru, Hyderabad 502324, Telangana, India
3
Center for Environmental Science & Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB), Powai, Mumbai 400077, Maharashtra, India
4
Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, National Geophysical Research Institute (CSIR–NGRI), Hyderabad 500007, Telangana, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yung-Tse Hung
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 22 December 2014 / Published: 19 January 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [589 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

When flowing through Hyderabad, the capital of Telangana, India, the Musi River picks up (partially) treated and untreated sewage from the city. Downstream of the city, farmers use this water for the irrigation of rice and vegetables. Treatment of the river water before it is used for irrigation would address the resulting risks for health and the environment. To keep the costs and operational efforts low for the farmers, the use of constructed wetlands is viewed as a suitable option. Towards this end, the paper investigates the interests and perceptions of government stakeholders and famers on the treatment of wastewater for irrigation and further explores the consumer willingness to pay a higher price for cleaner produced vegetables. Full cost recovery from farmers and consumers cannot be expected, if mass scale treatment of irrigation water is implemented. Instead, both consumers and farmers would expect that the government supports treatment of irrigation water. Most stakeholders associated with the government weigh health and environment so high, that these criteria outweigh cost concerns. They also support the banning of irrigation with polluted water. However, fining farmers for using untreated river water would penalize them for pollution caused by others. Therefore public funding of irrigation water treatment is recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: Musi River; Hyderabad; Telangana state; constructed wetlands; wastewater recycling; constructed wetland (CW); analytic hierarchy process (AHP); social network Musi River; Hyderabad; Telangana state; constructed wetlands; wastewater recycling; constructed wetland (CW); analytic hierarchy process (AHP); social network
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Starkl, M.; Brunner, N.; Amerasinghe, P.; Mahesh, J.; Kumar, D.; Asolekar, S.R.; Sonkamble, S.; Ahmed, S.; Wajihuddin, M.; Pratyusha, A.; Sarah, S. Stakeholder Views, Financing and Policy Implications for Reuse of Wastewater for Irrigation: A Case from Hyderabad, India. Water 2015, 7, 300-328.

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