Water 2014, 6(6), 1860-1872; doi:10.3390/w6061860
Article

Development of a Continuous Phytoplankton Culture System for Ocean Acidification Experiments

1,2,3,4,* email, 4email, 1,2,4email, 1,2,4email, 1,2,4email, 2,3email and 1,2email
Received: 6 February 2014; in revised form: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Around one third of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been absorbed by the oceans, causing changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. These changes have the potential to affect phytoplankton, which are critically important for marine food webs and the global carbon cycle. However, our current knowledge of how phytoplankton will respond to these changes is limited to a few laboratory and mesocosm experiments. Long-term experiments are needed to determine the vulnerability of phytoplankton to enhanced pCO2. Maintaining phytoplankton cultures in exponential growth for extended periods of time is logistically difficult and labour intensive. Here we describe a continuous culture system that greatly reduces the time required to maintain phytoplankton cultures, and minimises variation in experimental pCO2 treatments over time. This system is simple, relatively cheap, flexible, and allows long-term experiments to be performed to further our understanding of chronic responses and adaptation by phytoplankton species to future ocean acidification.
Keywords: phytoplankton; continuous culture; ocean acidification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wynn-Edwards, C.; King, R.; Kawaguchi, S.; Davidson, A.; Wright, S.; Nichols, P.D.; Virtue, P. Development of a Continuous Phytoplankton Culture System for Ocean Acidification Experiments. Water 2014, 6, 1860-1872.

AMA Style

Wynn-Edwards C, King R, Kawaguchi S, Davidson A, Wright S, Nichols PD, Virtue P. Development of a Continuous Phytoplankton Culture System for Ocean Acidification Experiments. Water. 2014; 6(6):1860-1872.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wynn-Edwards, Cathryn; King, Rob; Kawaguchi, So; Davidson, Andrew; Wright, Simon; Nichols, Peter D.; Virtue, Patti. 2014. "Development of a Continuous Phytoplankton Culture System for Ocean Acidification Experiments." Water 6, no. 6: 1860-1872.

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