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Water 2014, 6(6), 1719-1744; doi:10.3390/w6061719
Article

Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification

1,* , 1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 6
, 7
, 8
, 9,10
, 1
, 11
 and 12
1 Centre Scientifique de Monaco, 8 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco 98000, Monaco 2 Department of Economics, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL 60660, USA 3 Ocean Conservancy, Washington, DC 20036, USA 4 Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, School of Marine Science & Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK 5 Institute of Economic Studies, University of Iceland, Oddi v/Sturlugotu, Reykjavik 101, Iceland 6 Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3 DH, UK 7 School of the Environment, C3, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, PO Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia 8 Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE/IPSL), CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191, France 9 Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Kiellinie 66, Kiel 24105, Germany 10 Department of Economics, Kiel University, Olshausenstr. 40, Kiel 24118, Germany 11 Sidi Brahim, Le Mas St Claude L1 E7, Grasse 06130, France 12 Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, The Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences—Kristineberg, Fiskebäckskil 45178, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
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Abstract

This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing) and cultured species (aquaculture) prevents any biological impact assessment. However, it appears that non-developed nations around the Mediterranean, particularly those for which fisheries are increasing, yet rely heavily on artisanal fleets, are most greatly exposed to socioeconomic consequences from ocean acidification.
Keywords: fisheries; aquaculture; ocean acidification; Mediterranean Sea; economic development; multidisciplinary study fisheries; aquaculture; ocean acidification; Mediterranean Sea; economic development; multidisciplinary study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hilmi, N.; Allemand, D.; Cinar, M.; Cooley, S.; Hall-Spencer, J.M.; Haraldsson, G.; Hattam, C.; Jeffree, R.A.; Orr, J.C.; Rehdanz, K.; Reynaud, S.; Safa, A.; Dupont, S. Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification. Water 2014, 6, 1719-1744.

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