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Water 2014, 6(12), 3807-3827; doi:10.3390/w6123807

Impact Assessment and Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Alternative Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies Based on Treated Wastewater in Northern Gaza

1
Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Environmental Physics in Civil Engineering, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover D-30167, Germany
2
Department of Applied Geology, Geoscience Center, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Goldschmidtstr. 3, Göttingen D-37077, Germany
3
Irrigation Management Division, Institute of Water Modelling, New DOHS, Mohakhali Dhaka-1206, Bangladesh
4
Palestinian Hydrology Group, Emil Habibi Street-AlMasyoun, Ramallah, Palestine
5
Al Farez Center-South of the PA Compound, P.O Box 4288, Albireh, Ramallah, Palestine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 19 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking)
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Abstract

For better planning of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) project, the most promising strategies should analyze the environmental impact, socio-economic efficiency, and their contribution to the existing or future water resource conditions in the region. The challenge of such studies is to combine and quantify a wide range of criteria from the environment and society. This necessity leads to an integrated concept and analysis. This paper outlines an integrated approach considering environmental, health, social and economic aspects to support in the decision-making process to implement a managed aquifer recharge project as a potential response to water resource problems. In order to demonstrate the approach in detail, this paper analysed several water resources management strategies based on MAR implementation, by using treated wastewater in the Northern Gaza Strip and the potential impacts of the strategies on groundwater resources, agriculture, environment, health, economy and society. Based on the Palestinian water policy (Year 2005–2025) on wastewater reuse, three MAR strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local decision makers. The strategies were compared with a base line strategy referred to as the so-called “Do Nothing Approach”. The results of the study show that MAR project implementation with treated wastewater at a maximum rate, considered together with sustainable development of groundwater, is the best and most robust strategy amongst those analyzed. The analysis shows the defined MAR strategies contribute to water resources development and environmental protection or improvement including an existing eutrophic lake. The integrated approach used in this paper may be applicable not only to MAR project implementation but also to other water resources and environmental development projects. View Full-Text
Keywords: managed aquifer recharge; impact assessment; wastewater reuse; decision support; multicriteria analysis; Northern Gaza managed aquifer recharge; impact assessment; wastewater reuse; decision support; multicriteria analysis; Northern Gaza
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, M.A.; Rusteberg, B.; Uddin, M.S.; Saada, M.A.; Rabi, A.; Sauter, M. Impact Assessment and Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Alternative Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies Based on Treated Wastewater in Northern Gaza. Water 2014, 6, 3807-3827.

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