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Water 2014, 6(11), 3545-3574; doi:10.3390/w6113545

Evolution of Marine Organisms under Climate Change at Different Levels of Biological Organisation

1
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DA, UK
2
GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Duesternbrookerweg 20, Kiel 24105, Germany
3
Scienze Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Via S. Alberto 163, Ravenna I-48100, Italy
4
Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK
5
School of Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK
6
Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK
7
Stazione Zoologica "Anton Dohrn", Punta San Pietro, Ischia (NA) 80077, Italy
8
Ecology and Animal Biology Department, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36210, Spain
9
Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø NO-9296, Norway
10
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 405 30, Sweden
11
School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 7BL, UK
12
Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK
13
Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Via dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, Potenza 85100, Italy
14
Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, 191, Sala 139, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo 05508-120, Brazil
15
Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1170, USA
16
Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Integrative Ecophysiology, Postfach 120161, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
17
Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), PO Box 5003, Ås 1432, Norway
18
School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Essex, CO4 3SQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 March 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
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Abstract

Research to date has suggested that both individual marine species and ecological processes are expected to exhibit diverse responses to the environmental effects of climate change. Evolutionary responses can occur on rapid (ecological) timescales, and yet studies typically do not consider the role that adaptive evolution will play in modulating biological responses to climate change. Investigations into such responses have typically been focused at particular biological levels (e.g., cellular, population, community), often lacking interactions among levels. Since all levels of biological organisation are sensitive to global climate change, there is a need to elucidate how different processes and hierarchical interactions will influence species fitness. Therefore, predicting the responses of communities and populations to global change will require multidisciplinary efforts across multiple levels of hierarchy, from the genetic and cellular to communities and ecosystems. Eventually, this may allow us to establish the role that acclimatisation and adaptation will play in determining marine community structures in future scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocean acidification; climate change; acclimation; evolutionary potential; adaptation; biological organisation; biologically-relevant scales ocean acidification; climate change; acclimation; evolutionary potential; adaptation; biological organisation; biologically-relevant scales
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Harvey, B.P.; Al-Janabi, B.; Broszeit, S.; Cioffi, R.; Kumar, A.; Aranguren-Gassis, M.; Bailey, A.; Green, L.; Gsottbauer, C.M.; Hall, E.F.; Lechler, M.; Mancuso, F.P.; Pereira, C.O.; Ricevuto, E.; Schram, J.B.; Stapp, L.S.; Stenberg, S.; Rosa, L.T.S. Evolution of Marine Organisms under Climate Change at Different Levels of Biological Organisation. Water 2014, 6, 3545-3574.

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