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Water 2014, 6(12), 3575-3589; doi:10.3390/w6123575

Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a Watershed-Scale Case for Water Quality Management

1
Department of Natural Resources, Chinese Culture University, 55, Hwa-kang Rd., Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
2
Department of Civil Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No1, Sec3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan
3
Department of Water Resources Engineering and Conservation, Feng Chia University, No. 100 Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan
4
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, 151, Ying-Chuan Rd., Tamsui, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan
5
Department of Civil Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No1, Sec3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
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Abstract

Low impact development (LID) is a relatively new concept in land use management that aims to maintain hydrological conditions at a predevelopment level without deteriorating water quality during land development. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration model (SUSTAIN) to evaluate the performance of LID practices at different spatial scales; however, the application of this model has been limited relative to LID modeling. In this study, the SUSTAIN model was applied to a Taiwanese watershed. Model calibration and verification were performed, and different types of LID facilities were evaluated. The model simulation process and the verified model parameters could be used in other cases. Four LID scenarios combining bioretention ponds, grass swales, and pervious pavements were designed based on the land characteristics. For the SUSTAIN model simulation, the results showed that pollution reduction was mainly due to water quantity reduction, infiltration was the dominant mechanism and plant interception had a minor effect on the treatment. The simulation results were used to rank the primary areas for nonpoint source pollution and identify effective LID practices. In addition to the case study, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters was performed, showing that the soil infiltration rate was the most sensitive parameter affecting the LID performance. The objectives of the study are to confirm the applicability of the SUSTAIN model and to assess the effectiveness of LID practices in the studied watershed. View Full-Text
Keywords: System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration Model (SUSTAIN); low impact development; sensitivity analysis; watershed management System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration Model (SUSTAIN); low impact development; sensitivity analysis; watershed management
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, C.-F.; Sheng, M.-Y.; Chang, C.-L.; Kang, S.-F.; Lin, J.-Y. Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a Watershed-Scale Case for Water Quality Management. Water 2014, 6, 3575-3589.

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