Next Article in Journal
Retention and Curve Number Variability in a Small Agricultural Catchment: The Probabilistic Approach
Next Article in Special Issue
Establishment of the Underlying Rationale and Description of a Cheap Nanofiltration-Based Method for Supplementing Desalinated Water with Magnesium Ions
Previous Article in Journal
Review and Research Needs of Bioretention Used for the Treatment of Urban Stormwater
Previous Article in Special Issue
Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW)
Water 2014, 6(5), 1100-1117; doi:10.3390/w6051100
Article

Diarrhoeal Health Risks Attributable to Water-Borne-Pathogens in Arsenic-Mitigated Drinking Water in West Bengal are Largely Independent of the Microbiological Quality of the Supplied Water

1,2,3
,
4
,
4
,
2,5
,
1,2
,
1,2,6
,
1,4
,
2
 and
1,*
1 School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK 2 Molecular and Human Genetics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal, India 3 School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, UK 4 Department of Statistics, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019, West Bengal, India 5 Proteomic and Cell Signaling Lab, CSIR-Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Habsiguda, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007, Andhra Pradesh, India 6 Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, 7-10 Medical Sciences, Edmonton AB T6G 2H7, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [565 KB, 9 June 2015; original version 9 June 2015]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

There is a growing discussion about the possibility of arsenic mitigation measures in Bengal and similar areas leading to undesirable substitution of water-borne-pathogen attributable risks pathogens for risks attributable to arsenic, in part because of uncertainties in relative pathogen concentrations in supplied and end-use water. We try to resolve this discussion, by assessing the relative contributions of water supply and end-user practices to water-borne-pathogen-attributable risks for arsenic mitigation options in a groundwater arsenic impacted area of West Bengal. Paired supplied arsenic-mitigated water and end-use drinking water samples from 102 households were collected and analyzed for arsenic and thermally tolerant coliforms [TTC], used as a proxy for microbiological water quality, We then estimated the DALYs related to key sequelae, diarrheal diseases and cancers, arising from water-borne pathogens and arsenic respectively. We found [TTC] in end-use drinking water to depend only weakly on [TTC] in source-water. End-user practices far outweighed the microbiological quality of supplied water in determining diarrheal disease burden. [TTC] in source water was calculated to contribute <1% of total diarrheal disease burden. No substantial demonstrable pathogen-for-arsenic risk substitution attributable to specific arsenic mitigation of supplied waters was observed, illustrating the benefits of arsenic mitigation measures in the area studied.
Keywords: arsenic in groundwater; mitigation; water-borne pathogens; health risk substitution; disease burden; West Bengal arsenic in groundwater; mitigation; water-borne pathogens; health risk substitution; disease burden; West Bengal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Mondal, D.; Ganguli, B.; Roy, S.S.; Halder, B.; Banerjee, N.; Banerjee, M.; Samanta, M.; Giri, A.K.; Polya, D.A. Diarrhoeal Health Risks Attributable to Water-Borne-Pathogens in Arsenic-Mitigated Drinking Water in West Bengal are Largely Independent of the Microbiological Quality of the Supplied Water. Water 2014, 6, 1100-1117.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert