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Water 2018, 10(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030267

Atoyac River Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Puebla, México

1
Laboratorio de Toxicología Ambiental, Departamento de Biología y Toxicología de la Reproducción, Posgrado en Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
2
Laboratorio Química de Suelos, Departamento de Investigación en Ciencias Agrícolas, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Microbiología de Suelos, Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
4
Laboratorio de Química ambiental, Centro de Química, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
5
Laboratorio de Toxicología Ambiental, Departamento de Biología y Toxicología de la Reproducción, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
6
Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Abstract

The Atoyac River crosses the metropolitan area of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico and presents a state of pollution that has been scarcely studied. In 2016, the water quality of the river was evaluated based on physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, under the guidelines established for the Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL) for Aquatic Life Protection (ALP) and Agricultural Irrigation (AI). The sampling sites were the Covadonga Dam, the Echeverría Dam, and an irrigation canal. Water from wells and a spring in the Emilio Portes Gil (EPG) population that uses Atoyac water for agricultural irrigation was also analyzed. The data obtained from the river were compared with the 2011 data published in the declaration of classification of Atoyac and Xochiac or Hueyapan and its tributaries. There was a notable increase in hemical oxygen demand (COD) (49%) and in heavy metals with varying percentages. The anoxic condition of the river (mean 1.47 mg of O2/L) with large populations of coliform bacteria was demonstrated, 11 pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae were found, and high organic pollution concentrations were shown, particularly during droughts. Irrigation and well water was contaminated with fecal bacteria (104–549 NMP/100 mL), which included pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: Atoyac River; water pollution; heavy metals; coliforms; Emilio Portes Gil; Puebla Atoyac River; water pollution; heavy metals; coliforms; Emilio Portes Gil; Puebla
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Pérez Castresana, G.; Tamariz Flores, V.; López Reyes, L.; Hernández Aldana, F.; Castelán Vega, R.; Morán Perales, J.L.; García Suastegui, W.A.; Díaz Fonseca, A.; Handal Silva, A. Atoyac River Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Puebla, México. Water 2018, 10, 267.

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