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Water 2018, 10(1), 91; doi:10.3390/w10010091

Gemini Surfactant-Modified Activated Carbon for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium from Water

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Shale Gas Resource Exploitation, Xiangtan 411201, China
School of Civil Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China
School of Science & Sport, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Water)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3507 KB, uploaded 21 January 2018]   |  


Gemini surfactants, with double hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, offer potentially orders of magnitude greater surface activity compared to similar single unit molecules. A cationic Gemini surfactant (Propyl didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide, PDDDAB) and a conventional cationic surfactant (Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide, DTAB) were used to pre-treat and generate activated carbon. The removal efficiency of the surfactant-modified activated carbon through adsorption of chromium(VI) was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the surface changes of surfactant-modified activated carbon. The effect of important parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength and contact time were also investigated. The chromium(VI) was adsorbed more significantly on the Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon than on the conventional surfactant-modified activated carbon. The correlation coefficients show the data best fit the Freundlich model, which confirms the monolayer adsorption of chromium(VI) onto Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon. From this assessment, the surfactant-modified (especially Gemini surfactant-modified) activated carbon in this study showed promise for practical applications to treat water pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gemini surfactant; modification; chromium(VI); adsorption; activated carbon Gemini surfactant; modification; chromium(VI); adsorption; activated carbon

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhou, Y.; Wang, Z.; Hursthouse, A.; Ren, B. Gemini Surfactant-Modified Activated Carbon for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium from Water. Water 2018, 10, 91.

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