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Genes 2017, 8(12), 356; doi:10.3390/genes8120356

Responsive Proteins in Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Nitrogen Efficiencies under the Combined Stress of High Temperature and Low Nitrogen

1
Department of Botany, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India
2
Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 251002, India
4
Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses)
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Abstract

Productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is markedly affected by high temperature and nitrogen deficiency. Identifying the functional proteins produced in response to these multiple stresses acting in a coordinated manner can help in developing tolerance in the crop. In this study, two wheat cultivars with contrasting nitrogen efficiencies (N-efficient VL616 and N-inefficient UP2382) were grown in control conditions, and under a combined stress of high temperature (32 °C) and low nitrogen (4 mM), and their leaf proteins were analysed in order to identify the responsive proteins. Two-dimensional electrophoresis unravelled sixty-one proteins, which varied in their expression in wheat, and were homologous to known functional proteins involved in biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, photosynthesis, protein folding, transcription, signalling, oxidative stress, water stress, lipid metabolism, heat stress tolerance, nitrogen metabolism, and protein synthesis. When exposed to high temperature in combination with low nitrogen, wheat plants altered their protein expression as an adaptive means to maintain growth. This response varied with cultivars. Nitrogen-efficient cultivars showed a higher potential of redox homeostasis, protein stability, osmoprotection, and regulation of nitrogen levels. The identified stress-responsive proteins can pave the way for enhancing the multiple-stress tolerance in wheat and developing a better understanding of its mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteomics; wheat; nitrogen; nitrogen efficiency; high temperature proteomics; wheat; nitrogen; nitrogen efficiency; high temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yousuf, P.Y.; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Nauman, M.; Asif, A.; Hashem, A.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Ahmad, A. Responsive Proteins in Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Nitrogen Efficiencies under the Combined Stress of High Temperature and Low Nitrogen. Genes 2017, 8, 356.

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