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Genes 2017, 8(12), 350; doi:10.3390/genes8120350

Genes and Gut Bacteria Involved in Luminal Butyrate Reduction Caused by Diet and Loperamide

1
Faculty of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, SARI, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Subtropical/tropical Organism Gene Bank, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
3
Microbial Institute for Fermentaion Industry (MIFI), Sunchang, Jeonbuk 595804, Korea
4
Department of Gastroenterology, Wonkwang University Sanbon Hospital, Gunpo 435040, Korea
5
Department of Bioenvironmental Chemistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
6
BioTechnology Insittute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
7
Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
8
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
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Abstract

Unbalanced dietary habits and gut dysmotility are causative factors in metabolic and functional gut disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and constipation. Reduction in luminal butyrate synthesis is known to be associated with gut dysbioses, and studies have suggested that restoring butyrate formation in the colon may improve gut health. In contrast, shifts in different types of gut microbiota may inhibit luminal butyrate synthesis, requiring different treatments to restore colonic bacterial butyrate synthesis. We investigated the influence of high-fat diets (HFD) and low-fiber diets (LFD), and loperamide (LPM) administration, on key bacteria and genes involved in reduction of butyrate synthesis in mice. MiSeq-based microbiota analysis and HiSeq-based differential gene analysis indicated that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in butyrate metabolism in each treatment. Dietary modulation depleted butyrate kinase and phosphate butyryl transferase by decreasing members of the Bacteroidales and Parabacteroides. The HFD also depleted genes involved in succinate synthesis by decreasing Lactobacillus. The LFD and LPM treatments depleted genes involved in crotonoyl-CoA synthesis by decreasing Roseburia and Oscilllibacter. Taken together, our results suggest that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in gut dysbiosis, and that selected treatments may be needed depending on the cause of gut dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: butyrate synthesis; gut microbiota; gut dysbiosis; metagenomics; mucin butyrate synthesis; gut microbiota; gut dysbiosis; metagenomics; mucin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hwang, N.; Eom, T.; Gupta, S.K.; Jeong, S.-Y.; Jeong, D.-Y.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, J.-H.; Sadowsky, M.J.; Unno, T. Genes and Gut Bacteria Involved in Luminal Butyrate Reduction Caused by Diet and Loperamide. Genes 2017, 8, 350.

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