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Genes 2017, 8(10), 250; doi:10.3390/genes8100250

Effects of Antidiabetic Drugs on Gut Microbiota Composition

Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Hypertension and Nutrition, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
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Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
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Abstract

Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It is becoming clear that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes (T2D); inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases; notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis. In this review; we aim to cover the current knowledge about the effects of antidiabetic drugs on gut microbiota diversity and composition as well as the potential beneficial effects mediated by specific taxa. Metformin is the first-line treatment against T2D. In addition to its glucose-lowering and insulin sensitizing effects, metformin promotes SCFA-producing and mucin-degrading bacteria. Other antidiabetic drugs discussed in this review show positive effects on dysbiosis; but without any consensus specifically regarding the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Thus, beneficial effects might be mediated by specific taxa. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; type 2 diabetes; antidiabetic drugs; metformin; incretins gut microbiota; type 2 diabetes; antidiabetic drugs; metformin; incretins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Montandon, S.A.; Jornayvaz, F.R. Effects of Antidiabetic Drugs on Gut Microbiota Composition. Genes 2017, 8, 250.

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