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Genes 2017, 8(10), 239; doi:10.3390/genes8100239

Houttuynia cordata Facilitates Metformin on Ameliorating Insulin Resistance Associated with Gut Microbiota Alteration in OLETF Rats

1
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, 814 Siksa, Goyang 10326, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
2
NosQuest, USPACE 1A-1103, Daewang Pangyoro 660, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si 13494, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
3
College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University-Seoul, Dongguk-lo 32, Goyang 10326, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
4
Department of endocrinology, Dongguk University, Dongguk-lo 32, Goyang 10326, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
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Abstract

Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))—the same as metformin alone. Particularly, results of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) showed that combining HCE + metformin dramatically improved insulin sensitivity as compared to metformin treatment alone. Both fecal and serum endotoxin, as well as cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) were significantly ameliorated by HCE + metformin compared to metformin alone. Meanwhile, the activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) by metformin was distinctly enhanced by HCE. Both of HCE and metformin evidently changed the gut microbiota composition, causing the alteration of bacterial metabolite, like short-chain fatty acids. H. cordata, together with metformin, exerts intensive sensibilization to insulin; the corresponding mechanisms are associated with alleviation of endotoxemia via regulation of gut microbiota, particularly Roseburia, Akkermansia, and Gram-negative bacterium. View Full-Text
Keywords: Houttuynia cordata; insulin sensitivity; OLETF rat; gut microbiota; endotoxin Houttuynia cordata; insulin sensitivity; OLETF rat; gut microbiota; endotoxin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.-H.; Bose, S.; Lim, S.-K.; Ansari, A.; Chin, Y.-W.; Choi, H.S.; Kim, H. Houttuynia cordata Facilitates Metformin on Ameliorating Insulin Resistance Associated with Gut Microbiota Alteration in OLETF Rats. Genes 2017, 8, 239.

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