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Genes 2017, 8(10), 239; doi:10.3390/genes8100239

Houttuynia cordata Facilitates Metformin on Ameliorating Insulin Resistance Associated with Gut Microbiota Alteration in OLETF Rats

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, 814 Siksa, Goyang 10326, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
NosQuest, USPACE 1A-1103, Daewang Pangyoro 660, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si 13494, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University-Seoul, Dongguk-lo 32, Goyang 10326, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Department of endocrinology, Dongguk University, Dongguk-lo 32, Goyang 10326, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
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Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))—the same as metformin alone. Particularly, results of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) showed that combining HCE + metformin dramatically improved insulin sensitivity as compared to metformin treatment alone. Both fecal and serum endotoxin, as well as cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) were significantly ameliorated by HCE + metformin compared to metformin alone. Meanwhile, the activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) by metformin was distinctly enhanced by HCE. Both of HCE and metformin evidently changed the gut microbiota composition, causing the alteration of bacterial metabolite, like short-chain fatty acids. H. cordata, together with metformin, exerts intensive sensibilization to insulin; the corresponding mechanisms are associated with alleviation of endotoxemia via regulation of gut microbiota, particularly Roseburia, Akkermansia, and Gram-negative bacterium. View Full-Text
Keywords: Houttuynia cordata; insulin sensitivity; OLETF rat; gut microbiota; endotoxin Houttuynia cordata; insulin sensitivity; OLETF rat; gut microbiota; endotoxin

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, J.-H.; Bose, S.; Lim, S.-K.; Ansari, A.; Chin, Y.-W.; Choi, H.S.; Kim, H. Houttuynia cordata Facilitates Metformin on Ameliorating Insulin Resistance Associated with Gut Microbiota Alteration in OLETF Rats. Genes 2017, 8, 239.

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