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Genes 2017, 8(1), 42; doi:10.3390/genes8010042

Regulation of DNA Replication in Early Embryonic Cleavages

Genome Surveillance and Stability Laboratory, Institute of Human Genetics, UMR9002-CNRS-UM, 141 rue de la Cardonille, Montpellier 34396, France
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Academic Editor: Eishi Noguchi
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Replication Controls)
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Abstract

Early embryonic cleavages are characterized by short and highly synchronous cell cycles made of alternating S- and M-phases with virtually absent gap phases. In this contracted cell cycle, the duration of DNA synthesis can be extraordinarily short. Depending on the organism, the whole genome of an embryo is replicated at a speed that is between 20 to 60 times faster than that of a somatic cell. Because transcription in the early embryo is repressed, DNA synthesis relies on a large stockpile of maternally supplied proteins stored in the egg representing most, if not all, cellular genes. In addition, in early embryonic cell cycles, both replication and DNA damage checkpoints are inefficient. In this article, we will review current knowledge on how DNA synthesis is regulated in early embryos and discuss possible consequences of replicating chromosomes with little or no quality control. View Full-Text
Keywords: development; S-phase; cell cycle; Xenopus; Drosophila; translesion synthesis; checkpoint development; S-phase; cell cycle; Xenopus; Drosophila; translesion synthesis; checkpoint
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Kermi, C.; Lo Furno, E.; Maiorano, D. Regulation of DNA Replication in Early Embryonic Cleavages. Genes 2017, 8, 42.

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