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Cells 2014, 3(2), 476-499; doi:10.3390/cells3020476
Review

Breaking the Gingival Epithelial Barrier: Role of the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin in Oral Infectious Disease

Received: 17 April 2014; in revised form: 8 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Interactions of the Cytolethal Distending Toxins)
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Abstract: The Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is part of the HACEK group that causes infective endocarditis, a constituent of the oral flora that promotes some forms of periodontal disease and a member of the family of species that secrete a cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt). The family of bacteria that express the cdt genes participate in diseases that involve the disruption of a mucosal or epithelial layer. In vitro studies have shown that human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) are native targets of the Cdt that typically induces DNA damage that signals growth arrest at the G2/M interphase of the cell cycle. The gingival epithelium is an early line of defense in the oral cavity against microbial assault. When damaged, bacteria collectively gain entry into the underlying connective tissue where microbial products can affect processes and pathways in infiltrating inflammatory cells culminating in the destruction of the attachment apparatus of the tooth. One approach has been the use of an ex vivo gingival explant model to assess the effects of the Cdt on the morphology and integrity of the tissue. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of these studies and to critically examine the potential contribution of the Cdt to the breakdown of the protective gingival barrier.
Keywords: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; cytolethal distending toxin; gingival epithelial cells; gingival epithelium; gingival fibroblasts; periodontal disease; tissue Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; cytolethal distending toxin; gingival epithelial cells; gingival epithelium; gingival fibroblasts; periodontal disease; tissue
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

DiRienzo, J.M. Breaking the Gingival Epithelial Barrier: Role of the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin in Oral Infectious Disease. Cells 2014, 3, 476-499.

AMA Style

DiRienzo JM. Breaking the Gingival Epithelial Barrier: Role of the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin in Oral Infectious Disease. Cells. 2014; 3(2):476-499.

Chicago/Turabian Style

DiRienzo, Joseph M. 2014. "Breaking the Gingival Epithelial Barrier: Role of the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin in Oral Infectious Disease." Cells 3, no. 2: 476-499.


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