Cells 2014, 3(2), 236-246; doi:10.3390/cells3020236

Inflammatory and Bone Remodeling Responses to the Cytolethal Distending Toxins

1,* email and 2email
Received: 13 January 2014; in revised form: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Interactions of the Cytolethal Distending Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are a family of exotoxins produced by a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria. They are known for causing genotoxic stress to the cell, resulting in growth arrest and eventually apoptotic cell death. Nevertheless, there is evidence that CDTs can also perturb the innate immune responses, by regulating inflammatory cytokine production and molecular mediators of bone remodeling in various cell types. These cellular and molecular events may in turn have an effect in enhancing local inflammation in diseases where CDT-producing bacteria are involved, such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus ducreyi, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter hepaticus. One special example is the induction of pathological bone destruction in periodontitis. The opportunistic oral pathogen Aggregatibatcer actinoycemetemcomitans, which is involved in the aggressive form of the disease, can regulate the molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling in a manner that favors bone resorption, with the potential involvement of its CDT. The present review provides an overview of all known to-date inflammatory or bone remodeling responses of CDTs produced by various bacterial species, and discusses their potential contribution to the pathogenesis of the associated diseases.
Keywords: cytolethal distending toxin; cytokine; inflammation; bone remodeling; immune response; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Haemophilus ducreyi; Campylobacter jejuni; Helicobacter hepaticus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Belibasakis, G.N.; Bostanci, N. Inflammatory and Bone Remodeling Responses to the Cytolethal Distending Toxins. Cells 2014, 3, 236-246.

AMA Style

Belibasakis GN, Bostanci N. Inflammatory and Bone Remodeling Responses to the Cytolethal Distending Toxins. Cells. 2014; 3(2):236-246.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Belibasakis, Georgios N.; Bostanci, Nagihan. 2014. "Inflammatory and Bone Remodeling Responses to the Cytolethal Distending Toxins." Cells 3, no. 2: 236-246.

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