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Agronomy 2016, 6(1), 15; doi:10.3390/agronomy6010015

Identification of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Autophagy Genes and Their Expression Levels during Leaf Senescence, Chronic Nitrogen Limitation and in Response to Dark Exposure

INRA-AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, UMR1318, ERL CNRS 3559, Saclay Plant Sciences, 78000 Versailles, France
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Academic Editor: Peter Langridge
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrogen Transport and Assimilation in Plants)
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Abstract

Barley is a cereal of primary importance for forage and human nutrition, and is a useful model for wheat. Autophagy genes first described in yeast have been subsequently isolated in mammals and Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis and maize it was recently shown that autophagy machinery participates in nitrogen remobilization for grain filling. In rice, autophagy is also important for nitrogen recycling at the vegetative stage. In this study, HvATGs, HvNBR1 and HvATI1 sequences were identified from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), complementary DNA (cDNA) and expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries. The gene models were subsequently determined from alignments between genome and transcript sequences. Essential amino acids were identified from the protein sequences in order to estimate their functionality. A total of twenty-four barley HvATG genes, one HvNBR1 gene and one HvATI1 gene were identified. Except for HvATG5, all the genomic sequences found completely matched their cDNA sequences. The HvATG5 gene sequence presents a gap that cannot be sequenced due to its high GC content. The HvATG5 coding DNA sequence (CDS), when over-expressed in the Arabidopsis atg5 mutant, complemented the plant phenotype. The HvATG transcript levels were increased globally by leaf senescence, nitrogen starvation and dark-treatment. The induction of HvATG5 during senescence was mainly observed in the flag leaves, while it remained surprisingly stable in the seedling leaves, irrespective of the leaf age during stress treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: senescence; dark stress; autophagy; nitrogen remobilization; barley; nitrogen use efficiency senescence; dark stress; autophagy; nitrogen remobilization; barley; nitrogen use efficiency
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Avila-Ospina, L.; Marmagne, A.; Soulay, F.; Masclaux-Daubresse, C. Identification of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Autophagy Genes and Their Expression Levels during Leaf Senescence, Chronic Nitrogen Limitation and in Response to Dark Exposure. Agronomy 2016, 6, 15.

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