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Agronomy 2016, 6(1), 14; doi:10.3390/agronomy6010014

Stability of the Inherent Target Metallome in Seed Crops and a Mushroom Grown on Soils of Extreme Mineral Spans

1
Institute of Earth Sciences, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Burgweg 11, D-07749 Jena, Germany
2
Food GmbH Jena, Orlaweg 2, D-07743 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Langridge
Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
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Abstract

Extremes in soil mineral supply alter the metallome of seeds much less than that of their herbage. The underlying mechanisms of mineral homeostasis and the “puzzle of seed filling” are not yet understood. Field crops of wheat, rye, pea, and the mushroom Kuehneromyces mutabilis were established on a set of metalliferous uranium mine soils and alluvial sands. Mineral concentrations in mature plants were determined from roots to seeds (and to fungal basidiospores) by ICP-MS following microwave digestion. The results referred to the concentrations of soil minerals to illustrate regulatory breaks in their flow across the plant sections. Root mineral concentrations fell to a mean of 7.8% in the lower stem of wheat in proportions deviating from those in seeds. Following down- and up-regulations in the flow, the rachis/seed interface configured with cuts in the range of 1.6%–12% (AsPbUZn) and up-regulations in the range of 106%–728% (CuMgMnP) the final grain metallome. Those of pea seeds and basidiospores were controlled accordingly. Soil concentration spans of 9–109× in CuFeMnNiZn shrank thereby to 1.3–2× in seeds to reveal the plateau of the cultivar’s desired target metallome. This was brought about by adaptations of the seed:soil transfer factors which increased proportionally in lower-concentrated soils. The plants thereby distinguished chemically similar elements (As/P; Cd/Zn) and incorporated even non-essential ones actively. It is presumed that high- and low-concentrated soils may impair the mineral concentrations of phloems as the donors of seed minerals. In an analytical and strategic top performance, essential and non-essential phloem constituents are identified and individually transferred to the propagules in precisely delimited quantities. View Full-Text
Keywords: basidiospores; cereals; geochemistry; herbivores; nonessential minerals; pea; seed filling; seed:soil transfer; seed target metallome basidiospores; cereals; geochemistry; herbivores; nonessential minerals; pea; seed filling; seed:soil transfer; seed target metallome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gramss, G.; Voigt, K.-D. Stability of the Inherent Target Metallome in Seed Crops and a Mushroom Grown on Soils of Extreme Mineral Spans. Agronomy 2016, 6, 14.

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