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Cancers 2015, 7(2), 736-762; doi:10.3390/cancers7020736

Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

1
Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
2
Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
3
Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Georg Lenz and Martin Dreyling
Received: 19 March 2015 / Revised: 21 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lymphoma)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [768 KB, uploaded 30 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care. View Full-Text
Keywords: checkpoint blockade; cytokines; immune escape; immunosuppression; immunotherapy; lymphoma; MDSC; Treg; TAM checkpoint blockade; cytokines; immune escape; immunosuppression; immunotherapy; lymphoma; MDSC; Treg; TAM
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Upadhyay, R.; Hammerich, L.; Peng, P.; Brown, B.; Merad, M.; Brody, J.D. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies. Cancers 2015, 7, 736-762.

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