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Cancers 2014, 6(2), 796-812; doi:10.3390/cancers6020796
Review

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Pro-Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9) and Their Complex Pro-MMP-9/NGAL in Leukaemias

 and *
INSERM U1138, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris-Descartes, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris 75006, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 25 March 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer Progress)
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Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have gained attention as cancer biomarkers. The inactive zymogen form of MMP-9 (pro-MMP-9) also exists as a disulphide-linked heterodimer bound to NGAL in humans. Leukaemias represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which vary in their clinical behavior and pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the expression profiles of pro-MMP-9 and NGAL as prognostic factors in leukaemias. We also report the expression of the pro-MMP-9/NGAL complex in these diseases. We discuss the roles of (pro)-MMP-9 (active and latent forms) and NGAL in tumour development, and evaluate the mechanisms by which pro-MMP-9/NGAL may influence the actions of (pro)-MMP-9 and NGAL in cancer. Emerging knowledge about the coexpression and the biology of (pro)-MMP-9, NGAL and their complex in cancer including leukaemia may improve treatment outcomes.
Keywords: hematologic malignancy; gelatinase; cancer, signalling; cell surface binding hematologic malignancy; gelatinase; cancer, signalling; cell surface binding
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Bouchet, S.; Bauvois, B. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Pro-Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9) and Their Complex Pro-MMP-9/NGAL in Leukaemias. Cancers 2014, 6, 796-812.

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