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Cancers 2014, 6(3), 1220-1255; doi:10.3390/cancers6031220

Fibrogenesis and Carcinogenesis in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase (TIMPs)

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Sanno Hospital, International University of Health and Welfare, Tokyo 107-0052, Japan
2
Department of Internal Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi 329-2763, Japan
3
Preventive Medical Center, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi 329-2763, Japan
4
Department of Surgery, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi 329-2763, Japan
5
Department of Radiology, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi 329-2763, Japan
6
Department of Pathology, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi 329-2763, Japan
7
Department of Pathology, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa 247-0056, Japan
8
Department of Internal Medicine, Kitasato University Medical Center, Saitama 364-8501, Japan
9
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine and Institute of Medical Sciences, Isehara 259-1193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2014 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer Progress)
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Abstract

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is emerging worldwide because life-styles have changed to include much over-eating and less physical activity. The clinical and pathophysiological features of NASH are very different from those of HBV- and HCV-chronic liver diseases. The prognosis of NASH is worse among those with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), and some NASH patients show HCC with or without cirrhosis. In the present review we discuss fibrogenesis and the relationship between fibrosis and HCC occurrence in NASH to clarify the role of MMPs and TIMPs in both mechanisms. Previously we proposed MMP and TIMP expression in the multi-step occurrence of HCC from the literature based on viral-derived HCC. We introduce again these expressions during hepatocarcinogenesis and compare them to those in NASH-derived HCC, although the relationship with hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HPCs) invasion remains unknown. Signal transduction of MMPs and TIMPs is also discussed because it is valuable for the prevention and treatment of NASH and NASH-derived HCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP); cancer invasion; cancer metastasis; bone marrow-derived stem cell; hepatic progenitor cell (HPC); cancer stem cell hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP); cancer invasion; cancer metastasis; bone marrow-derived stem cell; hepatic progenitor cell (HPC); cancer stem cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okazaki, I.; Noro, T.; Tsutsui, N.; Yamanouchi, E.; Kuroda, H.; Nakano, M.; Yokomori, H.; Inagaki, Y. Fibrogenesis and Carcinogenesis in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase (TIMPs). Cancers 2014, 6, 1220-1255.

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