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Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers
Cancers 2014, 6(2), 1098-1110; doi:10.3390/cancers6021098
Review

CCL21 Cancer Immunotherapy

1,2,3,4,5,* , 2,4,5,6
 and 1,2,3,4
1 Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 2 Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 3 UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 4 Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 5 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 6 Veterans' Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2014 / Revised: 22 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 7 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokines in Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [503 KB, 8 May 2014; original version 7 May 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Cancer, a major health problem, affects 12 million people worldwide every year. With surgery and chemo-radiation the long term survival rate for the majority of cancer patients is dismal. Thus novel treatments are urgently needed. Immunotherapy, the harnessing of the immune system to destroy cancer cells is an attractive option with potential for long term anti-tumor benefit. Cytokines are biological response modifiers that stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor efficacy of the chemotactic cytokine CCL21 and its pre-clinical and clinical application in cancer.
Keywords: CCL21; cancer immunotherapy; dendritic cell; polymer; T cell CCL21; cancer immunotherapy; dendritic cell; polymer; T cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lin, Y.; Sharma, S.; John, M.S. CCL21 Cancer Immunotherapy. Cancers 2014, 6, 1098-1110.

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