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Cancers 2014, 6(2), 969-997; doi:10.3390/cancers6020969
Review

Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers

1
 and 2,*
Received: 20 January 2014; in revised form: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokines in Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [405 KB, uploaded 23 April 2014]
Abstract: Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin®) and rituximab (Rituxan®)) and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge® (sipuleucel-T), investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response. To date, however, few consistent, reproducible, or clinically-relevant effects have been shown using vaccine or autologous cell transfers due in part to the fact that the immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor have not been overcome. Much of the research focus has been on re-activating or priming cytotoxic T cells to recognize tumor, in some cases completely disregarding the potential roles that B cells play in immune surveillance or how a solid tumor should be treated to maximize immunogenicity. Here, we will summarize what is currently known about the induction or evasion of humoral immunity via tumor-induced cytokine/chemokine expression and how formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) within the tumor microenvironment may be used to enhance immunotherapy response.
Keywords: tertiary lymphoid structure; CXCL13; germinal center; anti-tumor immunity; humoral immunity; B cells; T cells tertiary lymphoid structure; CXCL13; germinal center; anti-tumor immunity; humoral immunity; B cells; T cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pimenta, E.M.; Barnes, B.J. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers. Cancers 2014, 6, 969-997.

AMA Style

Pimenta EM, Barnes BJ. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers. Cancers. 2014; 6(2):969-997.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pimenta, Erica M.; Barnes, Betsy J. 2014. "Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers." Cancers 6, no. 2: 969-997.



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