Next Article in Journal
Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!
Next Article in Special Issue
The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Colorectal Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Look Inside Its Heterogeneous Nature
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cancers 2014, 6(1), 240-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers6010240

Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression

Department of Applied Clinical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito 2, L'Aquila 67100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer Progress)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1198 KB, uploaded 27 January 2014]   |  

Abstract

Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour biology. Following a brief outline of the gelatinase B/MMP-9 gene and protein, we analyse the role(s) of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in different phases of the tumorigenic process, and compare the importance of gelatinase B/MMP-9 source in the carcinogenic process. What becomes apparent is the importance of inflammatory cell-derived gelatinase B/MMP-9 in tumour promotion, early progression and triggering of the “angiogenic switch”, the integral relationship between inflammatory, stromal and tumour components with respect to gelatinase B/MMP-9 production and activation, and the fundamental role for gelatinase B/MMP-9 in the formation and maintenance of tumour stem cell and metastatic niches. It is also apparent that gelatinase B/MMP-9 plays important tumour suppressing functions, producing endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, promoting inflammatory anti-tumour activity, and inducing apoptosis. The fundamental roles of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in cancer biology underpins the need for specific therapeutic inhibitors of gelatinase B/MMP-9 function, the use of which must take into account and substitute for tumour-suppressing gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity and also limit inhibition of physiological gelatinase B/MMP-9 function. View Full-Text
Keywords: gelatinase B/MMP-9; tumour progression; angiogenesis; metastasis; inflammation; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; invasion; motility; immune surveillance; gelatinase B/MMP-9 inhibitors gelatinase B/MMP-9; tumour progression; angiogenesis; metastasis; inflammation; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; invasion; motility; immune surveillance; gelatinase B/MMP-9 inhibitors
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Farina, A.R.; Mackay, A.R. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression. Cancers 2014, 6, 240-296.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top