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The Hemostasis Apparatus in Pancreatic Cancer and Its Importance beyond Thrombosis
Centre for Biomedical Research, PGMI, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK
Queen’s Centre for Oncology and Haematology, Castle Hill Hospital, Castle Road, Cottingham, HU16 5JQ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2010; in revised form: 5 December 2010 / Accepted: 10 January 2011 / Published: 11 January 2011
Abstract: Laboratory evidence of aberrant coagulation is found in the majority of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and a clinical consequence of this is the high incidence and prevalence of vascular thromboembolic events. Other sequelae are hypothesized to be the facilitation and acceleration of mechanisms that define the malignant phenotype, such as invasion, trafficking and anchoring, establishing the metastatic niche and inducing angiogenesis. We review the in vitro and preclinical evidence that supports the role of the coagulation apparatus in the metastatic process of pancreatic cancer, with a particular emphasis on interaction of this pathway with clinically-targeted growth factor receptor pathways. Links between hemostasis, angiogenesis and epidermal growth factor pathways and their significance as therapeutic targets are considered.
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; thrombosis; hemostasis; tissue factor; microparticles
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MDPI and ACS Style
Echrish, H.; Madden, L.A.; Greenman, J.; Maraveyas, A. The Hemostasis Apparatus in Pancreatic Cancer and Its Importance beyond Thrombosis. Cancers 2011, 3, 267-284.
Echrish H, Madden LA, Greenman J, Maraveyas A. The Hemostasis Apparatus in Pancreatic Cancer and Its Importance beyond Thrombosis. Cancers. 2011; 3(1):267-284.
Echrish, Hussein; Madden, Leigh A.; Greenman, John; Maraveyas, Anthony. 2011. "The Hemostasis Apparatus in Pancreatic Cancer and Its Importance beyond Thrombosis." Cancers 3, no. 1: 267-284.