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Vitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer—An Update
Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taiwan
Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2010; in revised form: 30 December 2010 / Accepted: 31 December 2010 / Published: 6 January 2011
Abstract: The non-classical actions of vitamin D, namely anti-proliferation, pro-differentiation, immune function modulation, and anti-inflammation, have received great attention during the past decade, in particular, the potential of vitamin D analogs alone or in combination with other anticancer agents for the treatment of a variety of cancers. The association between vitamin D status and the higher incidence of many forms of cancer has suggested that vitamin D may play a role in the etiology of these types of cancer. Although it is still controversial whether this association exists for pancreatic cancer, biochemical evidence clearly indicates pancreatic cancer cells are responsive to the inhibitory effect of vitamin D and its analogs. In this review, we discuss briefly the origin and current therapy of pancreatic cancer, the history, source, metabolism and functions of vitamin D, the recent progress in the epidemiological studies of sunlight, and vitamin D status, and biochemical studies of vitamin D analogs in the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Keywords: vitamin D; pancreatic cancer; prevention; treatment; vitamin D receptor; chemoprevention; adenocarcinoma
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chiang, K.-C.; Yeh, C.-N.; Chen, T.C. Vitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer—An Update. Cancers 2011, 3, 213-226.
Chiang K-C, Yeh C-N, Chen TC. Vitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer—An Update. Cancers. 2011; 3(1):213-226.
Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chen, Tai C. 2011. "Vitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer—An Update." Cancers 3, no. 1: 213-226.