Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Predictive and Prognostic Protein Biomarkers in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Recommendation for Future Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Oxidative Stress in Stem, Cancer, and Cancer Stem Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Platelet Proteome and Tumor Dormancy: Can Platelets Content Serve as Predictive Biomarkers for Exit of Tumors from Dormancy?
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 885-912; doi:10.3390/cancers2020885
Review

The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature

,
 and *
Received: 26 March 2010; in revised form: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 19 May 2010 / Published: 20 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [255 KB, uploaded 20 May 2010]   |   Browse Figure
Abstract: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The diagnosis of thyroid nodules, made by neck examination and ultrasonography, is a common event occurring in over 50% of the patient population over the age of 50. Yet, only 5% of these patients will be diagnosed with cancer. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid nodules. However, 10–15% of these biopsies are inconclusive, ultimately requiring a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy. Consequently, research in thyroid biomarkers has become an area of active interest. In the 40 years since calcitonin was first described as the biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer, new biomarkers in thyroid cancer have been discovered. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have defined many of these novel thyroid biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of how these biomarkers have evolved from simple screening tests into a complex array of multiple markers to help predict the malignant potential and genetic signature of thyroid neoplasms.
Keywords: thyroid cancer; biomarker; biological marker; molecular marker; tumor marker; molecular pathways; epigenetics; serum based biomarkers; genomics; proteomics thyroid cancer; biomarker; biological marker; molecular marker; tumor marker; molecular pathways; epigenetics; serum based biomarkers; genomics; proteomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Grogan, R.H.; Mitmaker, E.J.; Clark, O.H. The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature. Cancers 2010, 2, 885-912.

AMA Style

Grogan RH, Mitmaker EJ, Clark OH. The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature. Cancers. 2010; 2(2):885-912.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grogan, Raymon H.; Mitmaker, Elliot J.; Clark, Orlo H. 2010. "The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature." Cancers 2, no. 2: 885-912.


Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert