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The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature
Division of Endocrine Surgery, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero St, C-347, Box 1674, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
RHG and EJM contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2010; in revised form: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 19 May 2010 / Published: 20 May 2010
Abstract: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The diagnosis of thyroid nodules, made by neck examination and ultrasonography, is a common event occurring in over 50% of the patient population over the age of 50. Yet, only 5% of these patients will be diagnosed with cancer. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid nodules. However, 10–15% of these biopsies are inconclusive, ultimately requiring a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy. Consequently, research in thyroid biomarkers has become an area of active interest. In the 40 years since calcitonin was first described as the biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer, new biomarkers in thyroid cancer have been discovered. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have defined many of these novel thyroid biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of how these biomarkers have evolved from simple screening tests into a complex array of multiple markers to help predict the malignant potential and genetic signature of thyroid neoplasms.
Keywords: thyroid cancer; biomarker; biological marker; molecular marker; tumor marker; molecular pathways; epigenetics; serum based biomarkers; genomics; proteomics
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MDPI and ACS Style
Grogan, R.H.; Mitmaker, E.J.; Clark, O.H. The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature. Cancers 2010, 2, 885-912.
Grogan RH, Mitmaker EJ, Clark OH. The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature. Cancers. 2010; 2(2):885-912.
Grogan, Raymon H.; Mitmaker, Elliot J.; Clark, Orlo H. 2010. "The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature." Cancers 2, no. 2: 885-912.