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Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Mediators in Gliomas
Department of Neuroscience and Department of Oncology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125, Messina, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2010; in revised form: 20 April 2010 / Accepted: 21 April 2010 / Published: 26 April 2010
Abstract: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors of the central nervous system. Despite relevant progress in conventional treatments, the prognosis of such tumors remains almost invariably dismal. The genesis of gliomas is a complex, multistep process that includes cellular neoplastic transformation, resistance to apoptosis, loss of control of the cell cycle, angiogenesis, and the acquisition of invasive properties. Among a number of different biomolecular events, the existence of molecular connections between inflammation and oxidative stress pathways and the development of this cancer has been demonstrated. In particular, the tumor microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory molecules, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, promoting proliferation, survival and migration of such tumors. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma, as well as chemokines and prostaglandins, are synthesized by resident brain cells and lymphocytes invading the affected brain tissue. Key mediators of cancer progression include nuclear factor-kappaB, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and specific microRNAs. The collective activity of these mediators is largely responsible for a pro-tumorigenic response through changes in cell proliferation, cell death, cellular senescence, DNA mutation rates, DNA methylation and angiogenesis. We provide a general overview of the connection between specific inflammation and oxidative stress pathway molecules and gliomas. The elucidation of specific effects and interactions of these factors may provide the opportunity for the identification of new target molecules leading to improved diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: inflammation; oxidative stress; nuclear factor-kappaB; glioma; brain tumor
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Conti, A.; Gulì, C.; La Torre, D.; Tomasello, C.; Angileri, F.F.; Aguennouz, M. Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Mediators in Gliomas. Cancers 2010, 2, 693-712.
Conti A, Gulì C, La Torre D, Tomasello C, Angileri FF, Aguennouz M. Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Mediators in Gliomas. Cancers. 2010; 2(2):693-712.
Conti, Alfredo; Gulì, Carlo; La Torre, Domenico; Tomasello, Chiara; Angileri, Filippo F.; Aguennouz, M’Hammed. 2010. "Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Mediators in Gliomas." Cancers 2, no. 2: 693-712.