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Midkine: A Novel Prognostic Biomarker for Cancer
Department of Diagnostic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2010; in revised form: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 20 April 2010
Abstract: Since diagnosis at an early stage still remains a key issue for modern oncology and is crucial for successful cancer therapy, development of sensitive, specific, and non-invasive tumor markers, especially, in serum, is urgently needed. Midkine (MK), a plasma secreted protein, was initially identified in embryonal carcinoma cells at early stages of retinoic acid-induced differentiation. Multiple studies have reported that MK plays important roles in tumor progression, and is highly expressed in various malignant tumors. Because increased serum MK concentrations also have been reported in patients with various tumors, serum MK may have the potential to become a very useful tumor marker. Here, we review and discuss the possibility and usefulness of MK as a novel tumor marker.
Keywords: Midkine; tumor marker; cancer screening; prognostic prediction
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Jono, H.; Ando, Y. Midkine: A Novel Prognostic Biomarker for Cancer. Cancers 2010, 2, 624-641.
Jono H, Ando Y. Midkine: A Novel Prognostic Biomarker for Cancer. Cancers. 2010; 2(2):624-641.
Jono, Hirofumi; Ando, Yukio. 2010. "Midkine: A Novel Prognostic Biomarker for Cancer." Cancers 2, no. 2: 624-641.