Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2010; in revised form: 31 May 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 11 June 2010
Abstract: Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research.
Keywords: molecular probes; contrast agents; affinity ligands; peptides; antibodies; nanoparticles; radioligands; imaging; cancer; optics; PET/SPECT; MRI; US
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Joshi, B.P.; Wang, T.D. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging. Cancers 2010, 2, 1251-1287.
Joshi BP, Wang TD. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging. Cancers. 2010; 2(2):1251-1287.
Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D. 2010. "Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging." Cancers 2, no. 2: 1251-1287.