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Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1251-1287; doi:10.3390/cancers2021251
Review

Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

1 and 1,2,*
Received: 27 May 2010; in revised form: 31 May 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 11 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
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Abstract: Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research.
Keywords: molecular probes; contrast agents; affinity ligands; peptides; antibodies; nanoparticles; radioligands; imaging; cancer; optics; PET/SPECT; MRI; US molecular probes; contrast agents; affinity ligands; peptides; antibodies; nanoparticles; radioligands; imaging; cancer; optics; PET/SPECT; MRI; US
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Joshi, B.P.; Wang, T.D. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging. Cancers 2010, 2, 1251-1287.

AMA Style

Joshi BP, Wang TD. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging. Cancers. 2010; 2(2):1251-1287.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D. 2010. "Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging." Cancers 2, no. 2: 1251-1287.



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