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Micromachines 2016, 7(9), 155; doi:10.3390/mi7090155

Investigation of the Influence of Glucose Concentration on Cancer Cells by Using a Microfluidic Gradient Generator without the Induction of Large Shear Stress

1
Department of Mechano-Micro Engineering, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503, Japan
2
Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeong-Bong Lee
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Lab-on-a-Chip)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [14795 KB, uploaded 1 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

A microfluidic device capable of precise chemical control is helpful to mimic tumor microenvironments in vitro, which are closely associated with malignant progression, including metastasis. Cancer cells under a concentration gradient of oxygen and other sustenance materials inside a tumor in vivo have recently been reported to increase the probability of metastasis. The influence of glucose concentration on cancer cells has not been measured well, whereas that of oxygen concentration has been thoroughly examined using microfluidic devices. This is because glucose concentrations can be controlled using microfluidic concentration gradient generators, which trade off temporal stability of the glucose concentration and shear stress on the cells; by contrast, oxygen concentration can be easily controlled without microfluidic device-induced shear stresses. To study cell division and migration responses as a function of glucose concentration, we developed a microfluidic device to observe cell behaviors under various chemical conditions. The device has small-cross-section microchannels for generating a concentration gradient and a large-cross-section chamber for cell culture. With this design, the device can achieve both a cell culture with sufficiently low shear stress on cell activity and a stable glucose concentration gradient. Experiments revealed that a low glucose concentration increased the total migration length of HeLa cells and that HeLa cells under a glucose concentration gradient exhibit random motion rather than chemotaxis. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidic gradient generator; perfusion culture; glucose concentration; cancer metastasis microfluidic gradient generator; perfusion culture; glucose concentration; cancer metastasis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ishida, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Ozaki, N.; Takaki, S.; Kuchimaru, T.; Kizaka-Kondoh, S.; Omata, T. Investigation of the Influence of Glucose Concentration on Cancer Cells by Using a Microfluidic Gradient Generator without the Induction of Large Shear Stress. Micromachines 2016, 7, 155.

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