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Micromachines 2016, 7(10), 179;

Neural Probes for Chronic Applications

School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea
Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 15073, Korea
Center for BioMicrosystems, Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kenichi Takahata
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 26 September 2016 / Published: 2 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Microsystems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [8068 KB, uploaded 2 October 2016]   |  


Developed over approximately half a century, neural probe technology is now a mature technology in terms of its fabrication technology and serves as a practical alternative to the traditional microwires for extracellular recording. Through extensive exploration of fabrication methods, structural shapes, materials, and stimulation functionalities, neural probes are now denser, more functional and reliable. Thus, applications of neural probes are not limited to extracellular recording, brain-machine interface, and deep brain stimulation, but also include a wide range of new applications such as brain mapping, restoration of neuronal functions, and investigation of brain disorders. However, the biggest limitation of the current neural probe technology is chronic reliability; neural probes that record with high fidelity in acute settings often fail to function reliably in chronic settings. While chronic viability is imperative for both clinical uses and animal experiments, achieving one is a major technological challenge due to the chronic foreign body response to the implant. Thus, this review aims to outline the factors that potentially affect chronic recording in chronological order of implantation, summarize the methods proposed to minimize each factor, and provide a performance comparison of the neural probes developed for chronic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatibility; biocompatible coating; chronic implant; foreign body response; neural probe; neural recording biocompatibility; biocompatible coating; chronic implant; foreign body response; neural probe; neural recording

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Kook, G.; Lee, S.W.; Lee, H.C.; Cho, I.-J.; Lee, H.J. Neural Probes for Chronic Applications. Micromachines 2016, 7, 179.

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