Next Article in Journal
Modeling of Microdevices for SAW-Based Acoustophoresis — A Study of Boundary Conditions
Next Article in Special Issue
Continuously Operating Biosensor and Its Integration into a Hermetically Sealed Medical Implant
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Neural Probes for Chronic Applications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Micromachines 2016, 7(10), 180; doi:10.3390/mi7100180

Flexible, Penetrating Brain Probes Enabled by Advances in Polymer Microfabrication

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
2
Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Microsystems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2816 KB, uploaded 10 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

The acquisition of high-fidelity, long-term neural recordings in vivo is critically important to advance neuroscience and brain–machine interfaces. For decades, rigid materials such as metal microwires and micromachined silicon shanks were used as invasive electrophysiological interfaces to neurons, providing either single or multiple electrode recording sites. Extensive research has revealed that such rigid interfaces suffer from gradual recording quality degradation, in part stemming from tissue damage and the ensuing immune response arising from mechanical mismatch between the probe and brain. The development of “soft” neural probes constructed from polymer shanks has been enabled by advancements in microfabrication; this alternative has the potential to mitigate mismatch-related side effects and thus improve the quality of recordings. This review examines soft neural probe materials and their associated microfabrication techniques, the resulting soft neural probes, and their implementation including custom implantation and electrical packaging strategies. The use of soft materials necessitates careful consideration of surgical placement, often requiring the use of additional surgical shuttles or biodegradable coatings that impart temporary stiffness. Investigation of surgical implantation mechanics and histological evidence to support the use of soft probes will be presented. The review concludes with a critical discussion of the remaining technical challenges and future outlook. View Full-Text
Keywords: intracortical microelectrodes; brain machine interfaces; polymer neural probes; insertion shuttle intracortical microelectrodes; brain machine interfaces; polymer neural probes; insertion shuttle
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Weltman, A.; Yoo, J.; Meng, E. Flexible, Penetrating Brain Probes Enabled by Advances in Polymer Microfabrication. Micromachines 2016, 7, 180.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Micromachines EISSN 2072-666X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top