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Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 793-812; doi:10.3390/mi6060793

PDR/INS/WiFi Integration Based on Handheld Devices for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation

1
Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Mariani
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 15 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation MEMS-Based Navigation—Systems and Applications)
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Abstract

Providing an accurate and practical navigation solution anywhere with portable devices, such as smartphones, is still a challenge, especially in environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) signals are not available or are degraded. This paper proposes a new algorithm that integrates inertial navigation system (INS) and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) to combine the advantages of both mechanizations for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors in pedestrian navigation applications. In this PDR/INS integration algorithm, a pseudo-velocity-vector, which is composed of the PDR-derived forward speed and zero lateral and vertical speeds from non-holonomic constraints (NHC), works as an update for the INS to limit the velocity errors. To further limit the drift of MEMS inertial sensors, trilateration-based WiFi positions with small variances are also selected as updates for the PDR/INS integrated system. The experiments illustrate that positioning error is decreased by 60%–75% by using the proposed PDR/INS integrated MEMS solution when compared with PDR. The positioning error is further decreased by 15%–55% if the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integrated solution is implemented. The average accuracy of the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integration algorithm achieves 4.5 m in indoor environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: PDR/INS/WiFi integration; PDR/INS integration; pseudo-velocity update; indoor pedestrian navigation; smartphone; motion constraints PDR/INS/WiFi integration; PDR/INS integration; pseudo-velocity update; indoor pedestrian navigation; smartphone; motion constraints
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhuang, Y.; Lan, H.; Li, Y.; El-Sheimy, N. PDR/INS/WiFi Integration Based on Handheld Devices for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation. Micromachines 2015, 6, 793-812.

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