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Micromachines 2015, 6(2), 163-171; doi:10.3390/mi6020163

Classification of Cells with Membrane Staining and/or Fixation Based on Cellular Specific Membrane Capacitance and Cytoplasm Conductivity

1
Graduate Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
2
State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
3
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Phillipe Renaud
Received: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Microdevices)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1584 KB, uploaded 22 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

Single-cell electrical properties (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane) and cytoplasm conductivity (σcytoplasm)) have been regarded as potential label-free biophysical markers for the evaluation of cellular status. However, whether there exist correlations between these biophysical markers and cellular status (e.g., membrane-associate protein expression) is still unknown. To further validate the utility of single-cell electrical properties in cell type classification, Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm of single PC-3 cells with membrane staining and/or fixation were analyzed and compared in this study. Four subtypes of PC-3 cells were prepared: untreated PC-3 cells, PC-3 cells with anti-EpCAM staining, PC-3 cells with fixation, and fixed PC-3 cells with anti-EpCAM staining. In experiments, suspended single cells were aspirated through microfluidic constriction channels with raw impedance data quantified and translated to Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm. As to experimental results, significant differences in Cspecific membrane were observed for both live and fixed PC-3 cells with and without membrane staining, indicating that membrane staining proteins can contribute to electrical properties of cellular membranes. In addition, a significant decrease in σcytoplasm was located for PC-3 cells with and without fixation, suggesting that cytoplasm protein crosslinking during the fixation process can alter the cytoplasm conductivity. Overall, we have demonstrated how to classify single cells based on cellular electrical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: single-cell analysis; cellular electrical properties; specific membrane capacitance; cytoplasm conductivity; microfluidics single-cell analysis; cellular electrical properties; specific membrane capacitance; cytoplasm conductivity; microfluidics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, S.-B.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, D.; Liu, S.-L.; Luo, Y.; Chiu, T.-K.; Wang, J.; Chen, J.; Wu, M.-H. Classification of Cells with Membrane Staining and/or Fixation Based on Cellular Specific Membrane Capacitance and Cytoplasm Conductivity. Micromachines 2015, 6, 163-171.

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