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Toxins 2017, 9(6), 192; doi:10.3390/toxins9060192

Talaromyces marneffei Genomic, Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Metabolomic Studies Reveal Mechanisms for Environmental Adaptations and Virulence

1,2,3,4,5,* , 1
and
1,2,3,4,5,*
1
Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
2
State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
3
Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
4
Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
5
Collaborative Innovation Centre for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiujiang Yu
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract

Talaromyces marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus. Among the 14 Mp1p homologs, only Mp1p is a virulence factor binding a variety of host proteins, fatty acids and lipids. There are 23 polyketide synthase genes, one for melanin and two for mitorubrinic acid/mitorubrinol biosynthesis, which are virulence factors. Another polyketide synthase is for biogenesis of the diffusible red pigment, which consists of amino acid conjugates of monascorubin and rubropunctatin. Novel microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) and processing proteins are present. The dicer protein, dcl-2, is required for biogenesis of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, which are more highly expressed in hyphal cells. Comparative transcriptomics showed that tandem repeat-containing genes were overexpressed in yeast phase, generating protein polymorphism among cells, evading host’s immunity. Comparative proteomics between yeast and hyphal cells revealed that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, up-regulated in hyphal cells, is an adhesion factor for conidial attachment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Talaromyces marneffei; genomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; metabolomics Talaromyces marneffei; genomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; metabolomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lau, S.K.P.; Tsang, C.-C.; Woo, P.C.Y. Talaromyces marneffei Genomic, Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Metabolomic Studies Reveal Mechanisms for Environmental Adaptations and Virulence. Toxins 2017, 9, 192.

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