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Toxins 2017, 9(9), 280; doi:10.3390/toxins9090280

Does the Host Contribute to Modulation of Mycotoxin Production by Fruit Pathogens?

1
Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
2
Department of Food Quality and Safety Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
3
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1550 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706-1598, USA
4
Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1550 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706-1598, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiujiang Yu
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [287 KB, uploaded 12 September 2017]

Abstract

Storage of freshly harvested fruit is a key factor in modulating their supply for several months after harvest; however, their quality can be reduced by pathogen attack. Fruit pathogens may infect their host through damaged surfaces, such as mechanical injuries occurring during growing, harvesting, and packing, leading to increased colonization as the fruit ripens. Of particular concern are fungal pathogens that not only macerate the host tissue but also secrete significant amounts of mycotoxins. Many studies have described the importance of physiological factors, including stage of fruit development, biochemical factors (ripening, C and N content), and environmental factors (humidity, temperature, water deficit) on the occurrence of mycotoxins. However, those factors usually show a correlative effect on fungal growth and mycotoxin accumulation. Recent reports have suggested that host factors can induce fungal metabolism, leading to the synthesis and accumulation of mycotoxins. This review describes the new vision of host-factor impact on the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthetic gene clusters underlying the complex regulation of mycotoxin accumulation in ripening fruit. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; fruit pathogen; food safety; fungal pathogenicity; fruit ripening mycotoxin; fruit pathogen; food safety; fungal pathogenicity; fruit ripening
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, D.; Barad, S.; Sionov, E.; Keller, N.P.; Prusky, D.B. Does the Host Contribute to Modulation of Mycotoxin Production by Fruit Pathogens? Toxins 2017, 9, 280.

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