Next Article in Journal
Occurrence of Penicillium brocae and Penicillium citreonigrum, which Produce a Mutagenic Metabolite and a Mycotoxin Citreoviridin, Respectively, in Selected Commercially Available Rice Grains in Thailand
Previous Article in Journal
Talaromyces marneffei Genomic, Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Metabolomic Studies Reveal Mechanisms for Environmental Adaptations and Virulence
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(6), 193; doi:10.3390/toxins9060193

Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins

1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
2
Molecular and Translational Sciences Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Ft. Detrick, MD 21702, USA
3
Office of the Chief Scientist, Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC), Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Rummel
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1096 KB, uploaded 15 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC), alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs) to cause hemagglutination. The hemagglutinin positive progenitor toxin complex consists of BoNT, nontoxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH), and three hemagglutinin proteins; HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17. Hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes contain BoNT and NTNH as the minimally functional PTC (M-PTC), but not the three hemagglutinin proteins. Interestingly, the genome of hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes comprises open reading frames (orfs) which encode for three proteins, but the existence of these proteins has not yet been extensively demonstrated. In this work, we demonstrate that these three proteins exist and form part of the PTC for hemagglutinin negative complexes. Several hemagglutinin negative strains producing BoNT/A, /E, and /F were found to contain the three open reading frame proteins. Additionally, several BoNT/A-containing bivalent strains were examined, and NAPs from both genes, including the open reading frame proteins, were associated with BoNT/A. The open reading frame encoded proteins are more easily removed from the botulinum complex than the hemagglutinin proteins, but are present in several BoNT/A and /F toxin preparations. These are not easily removed from the BoNT/E complex, however, and are present even in commercially-available purified BoNT/E complex. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum neurotoxin; botulism; protein toxin; toxin complex; proteomics botulinum neurotoxin; botulism; protein toxin; toxin complex; proteomics
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kalb, S.R.; Baudys, J.; Smith, T.J.; Smith, L.A.; Barr, J.R. Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins. Toxins 2017, 9, 193.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top