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Toxins 2017, 9(6), 191; doi:10.3390/toxins9060191

Recombinant Phospholipase D from Loxosceles gaucho Binds to Platelets and Promotes Phosphatidylserine Exposure

Laboratory of Immunopathology, Butantan Institute, Av. Vital Brazil 1500, 05503-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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Academic Editors: Bryan Grieg Fry and Richard J. Lewis
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Spider envenomation, from the genus Loxosceles, is frequently reported as a cause of necrotic lesions in humans around the world. Among the many components found in the venom of Loxosceles genus, phospholipases D (PLDs) are the most investigated, since they can cause a massive inflammatory response, dermonecrosis, hemolysis and platelet aggregation, among other effects. Even though the PLDs induce strong platelet aggregation, there are no studies showing how the PLDs interact with platelets to promote this effect. Since many agonists must interact with specific receptors on the platelet membrane to induce aggregation, it is reasonable to expect that the PLDs may, in some way, also interact with platelets, to induce this activity. Therefore, to address this possibility, in this work, a recombinant PLD, called LgRec1, from L. gaucho was fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and used as a probe to detect the interaction of LgRec1 to platelets, by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and confocal microscopy. The preservation of biological activities of this chimera toxin was also analyzed. As a first, the results show that LgRec1 does not require plasma components to bind to platelets, although these components are necessary to LgRec1 to induce platelet aggregation. Also, the attachment of LgRec1 to human platelets’ cell membranes suggests that the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) may act as a scaffold for coagulation factors. Therefore, the results add new information about the binding of Loxosceles PLDs to platelets, which may help unravel how these toxins promote platelet aggregation. View Full-Text
Keywords: phospholipase D; Loxosceles gaucho; EGFP; platelets; binding; chimera toxin phospholipase D; Loxosceles gaucho; EGFP; platelets; binding; chimera toxin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fukuda, D.A.; Caporrino, M.C.; Barbaro, K.C.; Della-Casa, M.S.; Faquim-Mauro, E.L.; Magalhaes, G.S. Recombinant Phospholipase D from Loxosceles gaucho Binds to Platelets and Promotes Phosphatidylserine Exposure. Toxins 2017, 9, 191.

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