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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 73; doi:10.3390/toxins9020073

Acute Toxicities of the Saxitoxin Congeners Gonyautoxin 5, Gonyautoxin 6, Decarbamoyl Gonyautoxin 2&3, Decarbamoyl Neosaxitoxin, C-1&2 and C-3&4 to Mice by Various Routes of Administration

1
Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand
2
Ministry for Primary Industries, P.O. Box 2526, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
3
AgResearch Limited, Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michio Murata
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [980 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required. These are expressed as “Toxicity Equivalence Factors” (TEFs). At present, TEFs are largely based on relative specific activities following intraperitoneal injection in a mouse bioassay rather than on acute toxicity determinations. A more relevant parameter for comparison would be median lethal doses via oral administration, since this is the route through which humans are exposed to PSTs. In the present study, the median lethal doses of gonyautoxin 5, gonyautoxin 6, decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin and of equilibrium mixtures of decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2&3, C1&2 and C3&4 by oral administration to mice have been determined and compared with toxicities via intraperitoneal injection. The results indicate that the TEFs of several of these substances require revision in order to more accurately reflect the risk these toxins present to human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: paralytic shellfish toxins; gonyautoxins; decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin; decarbamoyl gonyautoxins; C1&2; C3&4; acute toxicity; toxicity equivalence factors; oral exposure paralytic shellfish toxins; gonyautoxins; decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin; decarbamoyl gonyautoxins; C1&2; C3&4; acute toxicity; toxicity equivalence factors; oral exposure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Selwood, A.I.; Waugh, C.; Harwood, D.T.; Rhodes, L.L.; Reeve, J.; Sim, J.; Munday, R. Acute Toxicities of the Saxitoxin Congeners Gonyautoxin 5, Gonyautoxin 6, Decarbamoyl Gonyautoxin 2&3, Decarbamoyl Neosaxitoxin, C-1&2 and C-3&4 to Mice by Various Routes of Administration. Toxins 2017, 9, 73.

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